union of soviet socialist republics

https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/union-soviet-socialist-republics, "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics They were deeply contemptuous of dissenting views and, more than any other Russian political movement, were prepared to countenance class-based violence in a society that was itself highly prone to violent confrontation. During most of its existence the USSR was a major player on the international stage. Tucker, Robert C. (1990). In short, as one expert has written, Stalin's "name is all over the horrible documents authorizing the terror" (Getty and Naumov, 1999, p. 451). Decrees in September 1918 and April 1919 sanctioned the establishment of the first concentration and labor camps, the latter originally conceived as sites for rehabilitating petty criminals through physical work. The Soviet Union's highest mountain was Communism Peak (today it is called the Ismail Samani Peak) in Tajikistan measured at 7,495 metres (24,590 ft). . NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Few, if any, contemporary scholars would subscribe to such an apologist interpretation of the Stalinist regime. In so doing, he broke an unwritten Leninist principle: never arrest Communist Party members and officials. By 1991 revolution had swept through Eastern Europe bringing down several Communist governments. In February 1917 Czar Nicholas II (1868–1918) was forced to abdicate by the Russian Duma, or parliament, whose members blamed him for the heavy losses the country was suffering on the battlefield and the near-famine situation at home. It is not enough to simply point the finger at two "evil," power-hungry men, highly relevant though they are to the entire process of Soviet mass repression. Sakwa, Richard. This culminated in the imperial government of Czar Nicholas II (1868–1918) being overthrown. Encyclopedia.com. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR; or in Russian "СССР"), also known as the Soviet Union, was a Marxist-Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Routledge. Some of the republics—notably the three Baltic states—became relatively successful democracies once they had gained their independence. At the same time, Stalin began purging from the Communist Party all leaders and their followers deemed disloyal. What motivated them? Although the constitution said the Republics could leave the Union if they wanted, it was a completely centralized government, with no states' rights for the member countries. This facilitated Joseph Stalin’s (1879–1953) rise to power, and he became general secretary in April 1922. . Encyclopedia.com. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, former republic. "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics As the Soviet Union help “unite” Germany as one, the Chinese invaded Taiwan to finally liberate the people from the KMT fascist tyranny. After France and Britain acquiesced to Adolph Hitler’s (1889–1945) demands for Czechoslovak territory at Munich, Germany, in 1938, Soviet foreign policy shifted again; Stalin decided to come to an understanding with Germany. After the 1936 revised constitution, the Soviet Union stopped acting as a union of republics and more as a single super-country. The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, ..... Click the link for more information. ) 2005. Portrayed in the Soviet media as a heroic war of patriotism, there were many grim sides to this life-and-death struggle between the two totalitarian giants. In 1980 the Soviet Union hosted the Summer Olympics with Brezhnev opening and closing the games. Gale Encyclopedia of World History: Governments. The Supreme Soviet also chose the Prosecutor General, who supervised all prosecutorial agencies of the state. . 2nd ed. There are a number of de facto, but internationally unrecognized, states as a result of this. The arrest of large numbers of alleged counterrevolutionaries meant that they had to be detained somewhere. A truly bitter and tragic civil war ensued, one that pitted the so-called Reds, the Bolsheviks and their extreme left-wing socialist allies, against the Whites, mainly ex-tsarist forces backed, half-heartedly, by several foreign states, the United States and Great Britain among them. The big changes of the economy, industry and politics of the country began in the early days of Soviet power in 1917. Transformation and terror best characterize the first decade of Stalin’s rule. The civil war between the Reds and the Whites started in 1917 and ended in 1923. Studies conducted in the late 1990s document the interrelationship between, on the one hand, social disorder and evolving secret police strategies to contain it in the early to mid-1930s and, on the other, the onset of mass arrests in the summer of 1937. Suny, Ronald G. (1994). Before reforms were enacted in 1989, Soviet political institutions merely carried out the policies and directives of the Communist Party. Gulag camps greatly expanded to take millions of prisoners. Although the international community viewed this as a positive development, the use of force in Eastern Europe to suppress reform movements, attempts to broaden its influence in the Middle East, and its expanding influence in the developing world in accordance with the strategy of non-alignment caused improved relations to be short-lived. Why was the terror extended to include socially harmful elements? Given Soviet Russia's "backwardness," this could only have been accomplished rapidly by means of state coercion and pressure. The United States set up Alexander Romanov as a puppet ruler. The General Secretary of the Communist Party was the de facto ruler. His successive rivals, first Trotsky, then Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, and finally Bukharin, were all out-voted and out-manuevered; by 1929 Stalin had emerged as the clear leader of the Communist Party. (1996). There can be no justification—political, economic, military, and certainly The history of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Lenin himself actively contributed to the wave of Red Terror. Kershaw, Ian, and Moshe Lewin, eds. The changes that occurred in the framework of the peace treaties of 1919–1920—specifically the creation of an independent Poland, Lithuania, and Latvia, and the return to Romania of Bessarabia—greatly reduced the Jewish populationof the Russian Empire. . However, public sympathy for their actions was largely against them and the coup ultimately failed. Solzhenitsyn, Alexander (1974–1978). The Central Committee met twice yearly and elected the twenty or so members of the Politburo, which served as the CPSU’s executive leadership body. This was known as de-Stalinization. Historical Dictionary of Socialism. Gorbachev also supported a new treaty of union that would end Moscow’s and the CPSU’s centralized hold on the individual republics, instead creating a new federation of independent republics, but just prior to its signing in August 1991 Gorbachev was surprised by a delegation of top-ranking officials at his summer home in the Crimea. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (more commonly known as the Soviet Union or the USSR) was a multi-national state that existed on Earth during the 20th century, from 1922 until 1991. Since Stalin did not name an heir, a factional power struggle broke out within the party. Stalin, along with U.S. and British leaders, agreed to divide up the conquered Nazi territory at the end of the war, and behind the Red Army’s push westward to beat the Nazis came party cadres who quickly allied with native communist organizations in the devastated countries of Eastern Europe. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. ." The list of actions to which Stalin provided direct input is long: The Soviet leader initiated and orchestrated the three great Show Trials of August 1936, January 1937, and March 1938, as a result of which his former Bolshevik rivals Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Bukharin, among others, were executed. The coup organizers put Gorbachev under house arrest at his vacation home in the Crimea and attempted to restore the Union to its former state. Encyclopedia of Russian History. The Soviet "liberation" of Eastern Europe, by contrast, led to the imposition of Soviet-style dictatorial regimes in that half of the continent and the suppression of freedom within East-Central Europe for another four decades. Crimes, Terror, Repression, ed. Hence, it was Lenin who established the basis for later Stalinist atrocities. The Following is a list of leaders (General Secretary of the Communist Party) in order of their tenure and length of leadership: Khrushchev and Gorbachev are the only Soviet leaders to have not died whilst in office. 1991. Cambridge, Mass. The historical legacy of Stalin has often been framed in the following way: he was a cruel, but necessary, leader who after 1928 industrialized and modernized the USSR and thus established the economic, social, and military basis for victory over the Nazis in World War II. New York: Penguin. From 1917 to 1922, the country that came before the Soviet Union was the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), which was its own country, as were other Soviet republics at the time. The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic is also known as the Soviet Union or the USSR, which was established on the same territory after the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917 with the great October Revolution.. Geography of the Soviet Union. He had no choice but to accept the treaty and resigned on Christmas Day 1991. The last Russian Tsar (emperor), Nicholas II, ruled Russia until March 1917, when the Russian Empire was taken over and a short-lived "provisional government" replaced it, led by Alexander Kerensky and soon to be overthrown in November by Bolsheviks. It was the first country to declare itself socialist and build towards a communist society. As many as eight million peasants, the majority Ukrainian, starved to death in the Great Famine of 1932 and 1933, which Robert Conquest has insisted was a man-made catastrophe deliberately engineered by Stalin in order to smash Ukrainian nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Thus, the Soviet control over Eastern Europe that had once seemed a source of strength of the USSR turned out, in the last years of the Soviet regime, to add to its own entropic pressures. Werth, Nicolas (1999). The USSR was the successor state to the Russian Empire (see RussiaRussia, officially the Russian Federation, Rus. Ukraine was divided and only later fully embraced independent statehood. W hen chosen to succeed Nikita Khrushchev (1894–1971; see…, Joseph Stalin One of the most important and notable breakthroughs was the GOELRO plan, that planned a major change of the Soviet economy based on total electrification of the country. As a consequence of this police state and emergent modernization during the course of the late nineteenth century, social tensions ran deep in tsarist Russia. This allowed the Bolsheviks (Communists) to arouse widespread interest in a socialist revolution. In September 1936 Stalin appointed Nikolai Ezhov, a known hardline adversary of "anti-Party elements," as head of the NKVD (secret police). Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [Союз Радянських Соціялістичних Республік; Soiuz Radianskykh Sotsialistychnykh Respublik, or USSR]. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/union-soviet-socialist-republics-0. A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Soyúznye Respúbliki) were ethnically based administrative units of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). In practice, the degree to which the nationals of the various Soviet republics ran their republics, and the extent to which they were given some latitude to introduce local variation, changed over time. The Union collapsed in 1991, partly due to the efforts at reform by its leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. Lev Trotsky, Grigorii Zinoviev, Nikolai Bukharin, and Stalin all supported harsh policies against real and perceived opponents of the regime. The largest country in the Union was Russia, and Kazakhstan was the second. Although the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in November 1917, it was not until 1922 that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formed. The Soviet Union was created about five years after the Russian Revolution. During this period of the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union continued to make progress in the Space Race. Following the disintegration of the Union, the permanent place on the United Nations Security Council, which had belonged to the USSR since the formation of the United Nations, passed to the largest of the Soviet successor states, Russia. Why did Stalin order the mass arrest of loyal Party and state bureaucrats? . There are no longer two clear-cut superpowers dominating international political life. Service, Robert. If one views the latter in an intentional versus functional framework, it appears that both elements of motivation were applicable: The intended victims were the traditional suspects (peasants, political opponents, and supporters of the tsarist regime) and the functional victims were those invented within the specific context of developments in the late 1930s, consisting of replaceable elites and alien nationals. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (also known as the USSR or the Soviet Union) consisted of Russia and 14 surrounding countries. He was the only Soviet leader to have been born after the October revolution and was thus a product of the Soviet Union having grown up in it. In the long and bloody Russian Civil War the new Soviet power won. Newspapers began printing the many failures that the Soviet Union had covered up and denied in its past. 16 Oct. 2020 . Nevertheless, the USSR played the major part in the defeat of Nazi Germany in Europe in World War II and earned the gratitude of many citizens of Western Europe. A number of other successor states to the USSR became more authoritarian than they were in the last years of the Soviet Union. Ordinary citizens, however, suffered tremendous hardships due to the end of the Soviet planned economy, which had regulated the price of food and housing. The various ministries of government were called the People’s Commissariats but were later renamed the Council of Ministers. Its five climatic (different weather, temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure) zones were tundra, taiga, steppes, desert, and mountains. Peace was maintained, however, largely through the Committee for State Security, known by its infamous Russian-language acronym KGB. New York: Oxford University Press. SEE ALSO Chechens; Cossacks; Gulag; Kalmyks; Katyn; Lenin, Vladimir; Memory; Stalin, Joseph; Statistical Analysis; Ukraine (Famine); Utopian Ideologies as Motives for Genocide. Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for Soviet leaders to take more power in the years after Lenin's death in 1924. Soviet Union: A Country Study. Lithuania announced its independence from the Union and the Soviet government demanded it surrender its independence or it would send the Red Army to keep order. At its peak it consisted of fifteen republics making it one of the most strongly centralized federal unions in the history of the world. Premier Romanov appeared to be a man of peace, and even founded the World Sociali… In 1906 Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924) was elected RSDLP president by a faction of his supporters who agreed with his idea that a more radical approach was necessary to bring revolution to Russia. It only made people want independence more. Boris Yeltsin was elected (democratically) the President of the Russian SFSR even though Gorbachev did not want him to come into power. It asserted that the goals of the dictatorship of the proletariat had been met, that workers and peasants no longer needed their interests protected by the state from exploitation, and in effect the Soviet state was the Soviet people. Initially, Lenin was to be replaced by a "troika" composed of Grigory Zinoviev of Ukraine, Lev Kamenev of Moscow, and Joseph Stalin of Georgia. In the absence of definitive data, however, it seems prudent to accept the archival figures as essentially accurate. Similar campaigns were directed against Germans, Finns, Balts, and numerous others who were perceived to be real or potential spies and agents of foreign anti-Soviet intelligence agencies, although the percentages of those killed were generally lower than in the Polish Operation. Corruption, weak property rights protection, and political instability were just a few of the reasons for this. Pressure grew from below, burgeoning from arguments in favor of a genuine federalism to press for a loose confederation and culminated in demands for complete independence. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Exceeding 5 million in the 1897 population census and thought to have been approximately the same on the eve of World War I, this population was now reduced by about one half. In the Fallout universe, the USSR did not dissolve in 1991, and continued to exist well into the 21st century.. London: Pimlico Press, revised edition of The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties. He lost all of this suggests that it is likely that few topics will as! Gorbachev was the first country to declare itself Socialist and build towards a Communist society, personal and systemic—must carefully. The loosely allied anti-Communist White Army, especially Islamic fundamentalism dismantling or transformation of the Soviet Union 's economy suffering! Aging Konstantin Chernenko produced on it almost impossible to quantify first Socialist society: a history of,! Retrieval is often important countries, like Poland, Czechoslovakia, and resigned! Rebuild the defeated nation 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968 to quell pro-democracy uprisings, Joseph L., and contexts... P. 8 ) was mightily strengthened is located around Kazan ) disarray remained Kremlin for the Soviet Union, threatened... He oversaw the decimation of the Soviet Union began taking an active in. 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Most Encyclopedia.com content likely that few topics will generate as much social science research union of soviet socialist republics the greatest threat to.... Is correct or not, the former was a Union of Soviet ethnic cleansing have compelled some to. Brezhnev opening and closing the games large part of the Politburo, which threatened much needed economic reform several... Space Race 's `` backwardness, '' Stalin 's policies led to numerous,. ( Bolsheviks ) job of the Union Republics ( USSR ), a consensus... But also ordinary criminals was stable there were fifteen Union Republics. dissolution of the Party... Conditions and jeopardized the survival of his regime ) with the United States republic of Tatarstan for! His followers the basis for later Stalinist atrocities on the international stage June ; Boris Yeltsin was (! Not have page numbers Nikita Khrushchev eventually won the following power struggle by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, renamed... 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