clinical toxicology textbook

Toxicology. Plus get free shipping on qualifying orders $25+. - Forensic Toxicology - Drug Toxicology - Environmental Toxicology • Discusses source of the drug or chemical, pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of action, detection, identification, and treatment, • Examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events, • Emphasizes the signs and symptoms of diseases and pathology caused by toxins and clinical drugs, • Covers effect of toxins on body systems and drug-induced adverse reactions, • Offers a unique perspective for toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy and health professions students. Personal information is secured with SSL technology. He has authored approximately 100 original research manuscripts, review articles, research abstracts, and conference proceedings in peer-reviewed toxicology and biomedical, journals. • Offers a unique perspective for toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy and health professions students. List of issues ... Books; Keep up to date. The Journal is a member benefit and has an Impact Factor (IF) of 4.398. Clinical Chemistry, 48, 6, 2002 An outstanding group of experts in laboratory medicine, emergency medicine, and toxicology, from poison control centers and academic, governmental, and private laboratories has produced this unique textbook. Pdf Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Organophosphates and Carbamates, epub Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Organophosphates and Carbamates,Bryan Ballantyne,Timothy C. Marrs pdf ebook, download full Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Organophosphates and Carbamates book in … —4th ed. It provides key information on how poisons affect the body, how the body responds to a foreign substance, how poisonings are diagnosed, and how poisonings are treated. 16.5.5 MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy)......................................................................234, 16.5.6 Methods of Detection................................................ 235, 16.6 Phencyclidine (1-Phenylcyclohexyl Piperidine; PCP)............ 235, 16.6.1 Incidence and Occurrence......................................... 235, 16.6.2 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 235, 16.6.3 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................236, 16.6.4 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose.................236, 16.6.5 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 237, 16.6.6 Methods of Detection................................................ 237, 16.7 Marijuana............................................................................... 237, 16.7.1 Incidence and Occurrence......................................... 237, 16.7.2 Medicinal Chemistry.................................................240, 16.7.3 Receptor Pharmacology and Toxicology..................240, 16.7.4 Clinical Use and Effects............................................ 241, 16.7.5 Toxicokinetics...........................................................242, 16.7.6 Acute Toxicity and Clinical Management.................242, 16.7.7 Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Chronic Effects............242, 16.7.8 Clinical Management of Chronic Addiction............. 243, 16.7.9 Methods of Detection................................................ 243, 16.8 Miscellaneous Hallucinogenic Agents................................... 243, 16.8.1 Ketamine (Special K, Vitamin K)............................. 243, 16.8.2 Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; Xyrem®)................245, 16.8.3 NBOMe.....................................................................246, References.........................................................................................246, Suggested Readings...........................................................................246, Review Articles................................................................................. 247, Chapter 17 Anticholinergic and Neuroleptic Drugs............................................ 251, 17.1 Introduction to Drugs Possessing Anticholinergic Effects........251, 17.2 Antihistamine, Gastrointestinal, and Antiparkinson Drugs.......251, 17.2.1 Incidence................................................................... 251, 17.2.2 Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology, and, Clinical Use............................................................... 253, 17.2.3 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 253, 17.2.4 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose.................254, 17.2.5 Methods of Detection................................................254, 17.3 Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)............................................ 255, 17.3.1 Incidence................................................................... 255, 17.3.2 Medicinal Chemistry................................................. 255, 17.3.3 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................ 255, 17.3.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 255, 17.3.5 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................256, 17.3.6 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................256, 17.3.7 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose.................256, 17.3.8 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 259, 17.3.9 Methods of Detection................................................ 259, 17.4 Phenothiazine, Phenylbutylpiperidine, and Thioxanthine, Antipsychotics........................................................................ 259, 17.4.1 Classification and Indications................................... 259, 17.4.2 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................260, 17.4.3 Toxicokinetics...........................................................260, 17.4.4 Mechanism and Signs and Symptoms of Acute, Toxicity......................................................................260, 17.4.5 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 262, 17.4.6 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 262, 17.4.7 Methods of Detection................................................ 262, 17.5 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIS).................. 262, 17.5.1 Classification and Clinical Use................................. 262, 17.5.2 Pharmacology and Receptor Activity.......................263, 17.5.3 Toxicokinetics...........................................................264, 17.5.4 Side Effects and Adverse Reactions..........................265, 17.5.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................266, 17.5.6 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose (O.D. This lecture note on toxicology is primarily inspired for undergraduate laboratory technology students who participate in the care of poisoned patients. Committee for Alternative Toxicological Methods (2009). Sign me up. John Trounce, who was the senior author of the first edition of this textbook, died on the 16 April 2007. The book contains reviews and posters of the 31st Congress of the EUROTOX (Maastricht 1991). We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.com. As with the two previous editions, Barile’s Clinical Toxicology: Principles and Mechanisms, Third edition, examines the complex interactions associated with clinical toxicological events as a result of therapeutic drug administration or chemical exposure. Description : Clinical Toxicology is the second volume of a three-volume set on molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology that offers a comprehensive and in-depth response to the increasing importance and abundance of chemicals of daily life. 16.5.4 DOM (2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, STP) and MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine)...............................234. This book addresses many unique nontherapeutic agents that may be encountered by the clinician. He is former editor of, Toxicology in Vitro and Journal of Pharmacological & Toxicological Methods, published, Dr. Barile is the recipient of Public Health Service research grants from the. In these positions, he investigated the role of, pulmonary toxicants in collagen metabolism in cultured lung cells. Dr. Barile has served on several U.S. government advisory committees, including: Toxicology Assessment Peer Review Committee, U.S. Environmental Protection. Clinical toxicology encompasses the expertise in the specialties of medical toxicology, applied toxicology, and clinical poison information. Cookie Settings, Terms and Conditions Be the first one to write a review. Textbook All relevant information about clinical metal toxicology is found in this 600 A4 pages textbook in two volumes. University Professors Faculty Association Award, St. John’s University, in 2003, 2004–2005, 2013–2014, and 2015–2016 and received the prestigious Public Health, Service Medallion from the director of the National Institute of Environmental, Health Sciences, Dr. Linda Birnbaum, for contributions to the Scientific Advisory. Topics covered includes: Introduction to toxicology, General approach to the poisoned patients, Practical aspects of analytical toxicology and Medical toxicants. Mobile/eReaders – Download the Bookshelf mobile app at VitalSource.com or from the iTunes or Android store to access your eBooks from your mobile device or eReader. Toxicology Lecture Notes. He lectures regularly to pharmacy and, toxicology undergraduate and graduate students in clinical and basic pharmaceutical, and toxicological sciences and was awarded “Professor of the Year” for the College. Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods, Support Contract Reviewer (2014); U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA), National Center for Toxicology, Research, Systems Biology Subcommittee (2016); National Institute for Occupational, Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, SK Profiles, Review Group (2014); U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory committee on, alternative toxicological methods (2013); and has served as vice president of the. Sixteen years later, he rejoined St. John’s University in the Department of. Cookie Notice please. This lecture note on toxicology is primarily inspired for undergraduate laboratory technology students who participate in the care of poisoned patients. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics gives you that understanding. A Textbook of Modern Toxicology is a unique resource that provides both students and practitioners with a wide-ranging, accessible overview of the discipline. Preface...................................................................................................................xxxi, Acknowledgments............................................................................................... xxxiii, Author...................................................................................................................xxxv, Contributors........................................................................................................xxxvii, Chapter 1 Introduction...........................................................................................3, 1.1 Introduction................................................................................3, 1.2 Basic Definitions.........................................................................4, 1.2.1 Toxicology.....................................................................4, 1.2.2 Clinical Toxicology.......................................................4, 1.3 Types of Toxicology...................................................................5, 1.3.1 General Toxicology.......................................................5, 1.3.2 Mechanistic Toxicology................................................5, 1.3.3 Regulatory Toxicology..................................................5, 1.3.4 Descriptive Toxicology..................................................6, 1.4 Types of Toxicologist..................................................................7, 1.4.1 Forensic Toxicologist.....................................................7, 1.4.2 Clinical Toxicologist.....................................................8, 1.4.3 Research Toxicologist....................................................8, 1.4.4 Regulatory Toxicologist................................................8, References.............................................................................................8, Suggested Readings...............................................................................8, Review Articles.....................................................................................9, Chapter 2 Risk Assessment and Regulatory Toxicology..................................... 11, 2.1 Risk Assessment....................................................................... 11, 2.1.1 Introduction................................................................. 11, 2.1.2 Hazard Identification/Risk Assessment (HIRA)......... 11, 2.1.3 Dose–Response Evaluation......................................... 11, 2.1.4 Exposure Assessment and Assessment Modeling....... 12, 2.1.5 Risk Characterization.................................................. 14, 2.2 Regulatory Toxicology............................................................. 16, 2.2.1 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).................... 16, 2.2.2 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)................... 17, 2.2.3 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)................ 18, 2.2.4 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).................. 19, 2.2.5 Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC)........20, 2.2.6 Occupational Safety and Health Administrations, (OSHA)........................................................................22, References...........................................................................................23, Suggested Readings.............................................................................23, Review Articles...................................................................................23, Chapter 3 Therapeutic Monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs).............27, 3.1 Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in Clinical Practice.............27, 3.1.1 The Joint Commission (TJC)......................................27, 3.1.2 Growing Medication Safety Concerns........................28, 3.1.3 National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG).......................28, 3.2 Factors that Contribute to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs)...29, 3.2.1 Inadequate Monitoring of Prescribed Drugs..............29, 3.2.2 Improper Adherence to Prescribed Directions........... 32, 3.2.3 Over-Prescribing and Overuse of Medications........... 32, 3.2.4 Drug–Drug and Drug–Disease Interactions............... 32, 3.2.5 Allergic Reactions....................................................... 32, 3.2.6 Medication Warnings.................................................. 33, 3.2.7 Medication Errors....................................................... 33, 3.2.8 Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRS)............................... 33, 3.3 Treatment of ADRs and Poisoning in Patients......................... 35, 3.3.1 History......................................................................... 35, 3.3.2 Poison Control Centers (PCCs)................................... 35, 3.3.3 Clinical Management of ADRs...................................36, 3.3.4 Clinical Management of Toxicologic Emergencies.....36, 3.4 Drug Identification and Methods of Detection......................... 41, References...........................................................................................44, Suggested Readings.............................................................................44, Review Articles................................................................................... 45, Chapter 4 Classification of Toxins in Humans.................................................... 47, 4.1 Introduction.............................................................................. 47, 4.2 Target Organ Classification...................................................... 47, 4.2.1 Agents Affecting the Hematopoietic System.............. 47, 4.2.2 Immunotoxic Agents...................................................48, 4.2.3 Hepatotoxic Agents.....................................................48, 4.2.4 Nephrotoxic Agents.....................................................49, 4.2.5 Pulmonary Toxic Agents............................................. 52, 4.2.6 Agents Affecting the Nervous System........................54, 4.2.7 Agents Affecting the Cardiovascular (CV) System.... 55, 4.2.8 Dermatotoxic Agents................................................... 55, 4.2.9 Agents Affecting the Reproductive System................ 59, 4.2.10 Agents Affecting the Endocrine System..................... 59, 4.3 Classification According to use in the Public Domain.............60, 4.3.1 Insecticides, Herbicides, Fungicides, and, Rodenticides (Pesticides).............................................60, 4.3.2 Food and Color Additives........................................... 61, 4.3.3 Therapeutic Drugs.......................................................63, 4.3.4 By-Products of Combustion........................................63, 4.4 Classification According to Source..........................................63, 4.4.1 Botanical.....................................................................63, 4.4.2 Environmental.............................................................63, 4.5 Classification According to Effects..........................................64, 4.5.1 Pathologic....................................................................64, 4.5.2 Teratogenic, Mutagenic, and Carcinogenic.................64, 4.6 Classification According to Physical State...............................64, 4.6.1 Solids...........................................................................64, 4.6.2 Liquids.........................................................................64, 4.6.3 Gases...........................................................................65, 4.7 Classification According to Biochemical Properties................65, 4.7.1 Chemical Structure.....................................................65, 4.7.2 Mechanism of Action or Toxicity................................65, References...........................................................................................65, Suggested Readings.............................................................................65, Review Articles...................................................................................65, Chapter 5 Exposure..............................................................................................69, 5.1 Introduction..............................................................................69, 5.2 Route of Exposure....................................................................69, 5.2.1 Oral..............................................................................69, 5.2.2 Intranasal..................................................................... 70, 5.2.3 Inhalation.................................................................... 71, 5.2.4 Parenteral.................................................................... 71, 5.3 Duration and Frequency........................................................... 72, 5.3.1 Acute Exposure........................................................... 72, 5.3.2 Chronic Exposure........................................................ 73, 5.3.3 Single- or Repeated-Dose Exposure........................... 73, 5.4 Accumulation........................................................................... 73, 5.4.1 According to Physiological Compartment.................. 74, 5.4.2 According to Chemical Properties.............................. 74, 5.4.3 According to Other Biological Factors........................ 74, References........................................................................................... 76, Suggested Readings............................................................................. 76, Review Articles................................................................................... 76, Chapter 6 Effects.................................................................................................. 79, 6.1 General Classification............................................................... 79, 6.1.1 Introduction to Principles of Immunology.................. 79, 6.1.2 Chemical Allergies...................................................... 79, 6.1.3 Idiosyncratic Reactions...............................................86, 6.1.4 Immediate versus Delayed Effects..............................86, 6.1.5 Reversible versus Irreversible Reactions.....................86, 6.1.6 Local versus Systemic Effects.....................................86, 6.1.7 Target Therapeutic Effects..........................................87, 6.2 Chemical Interactions...............................................................87, 6.2.1 Potentiation..................................................................87, 6.2.2 Additive.......................................................................87, 6.2.3 Synergistic...................................................................88, 6.2.4 Antagonistic................................................................88, References...........................................................................................88, Suggested Readings.............................................................................88, Review Aricles.....................................................................................89, Chapter 7 Dose–Response................................................................................... 91, 7.1 General Assumptions............................................................... 91, 7.1.1 Types of Dose–Response Relationships...................... 91, 7.1.2 Concentration–Effect and Presence at the, Receptor Site...............................................................93, 7.1.3 Criteria for Measurement............................................93, 7.2 LD50 (Lethal Dose 50%)...........................................................93, 7.2.1 Definition.....................................................................93, 7.2.2 Experimental Protocol................................................93, 7.2.3 Factors That Influence the LD50..................................94, 7.3 ED50 (Effective Dose 50%), TD50 (Toxic Dose 50%), and, TI (Therapeutic Index).............................................................95, 7.3.1 Relationship to LD50....................................................95, 7.3.2 Assumptions Using the TI...........................................95, 7.4 IC50 (Inhibitory Concentration 50%)........................................96, 7.4.1 Definition.....................................................................96, 7.4.2 Experimental Determination.......................................97, 7.4.3 For In Vitro Systems....................................................97, References...........................................................................................97, Suggested Readings.............................................................................97, Review Articles...................................................................................98, Chapter 8 Descriptive Animal Toxicity Tests......................................................99, 8.1 Correlation with Human Exposure...........................................99, 8.1.1 Human Risk Assessment.............................................99, 8.1.2 Predictive Toxicology and Extrapolation to, Human Toxicity...........................................................99, 8.2 Species Differentiation.............................................................99, 8.2.1 Selection of a Suitable Animal Species......................99, 8.2.2 Cost-Effectiveness..................................................... 100, 8.2.3 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, (IACUC).................................................................... 100, 8.3 Descriptive Tests..................................................................... 101, 8.3.1 Required LD50 and Two Routes............................... 101, 8.3.2 Chronic and Subchronic Exposure............................ 101, 8.3.3 Types of Tests............................................................ 101, References......................................................................................... 102, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 102, Review Aricles................................................................................... 103, Chapter 9 In Vitro Alternatives to Animal Toxicity.......................................... 105, 9.1 In Vitro Methods.................................................................... 105, 9.1.1 Cell Culture Methods................................................ 105, 9.1.2 Organ System Cytotoxicity....................................... 105, 9.1.3 Applications to Clinical Toxicology.......................... 106, 9.1.4 Relationship to Animal Experiments........................ 107, 9.2 Correlation with Human Exposure......................................... 107, 9.2.1 Risk Assessment........................................................ 107, 9.2.2 Extrapolation to Human Toxicity.............................. 107, 9.2.3 Predictive Toxicology................................................ 108, References......................................................................................... 108, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 108, Review Articles................................................................................. 108, Chapter 10 Toxicokinetics................................................................................... 111, 10.1 Toxicokinetics......................................................................... 111, 10.1.1 Relationship to Pharmacokinetics............................. 111, 10.1.2 One-Compartment Model......................................... 111, 10.1.3 Two-Compartment Model......................................... 112, 10.1.4 Application to Clinical Toxicology........................... 112, 10.2 Absorption.............................................................................. 112, 10.2.1 Ionic and Nonionic Principles................................... 112, 10.2.2 Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation and Degree of, Ionization................................................................... 114, 10.2.3 Route of Administration and Solubility.................... 118, 10.2.4 Absorption in Nasal and Respiratory Mucosa.......... 119, 10.2.5 Transport of Molecules............................................. 120, 10.3 Distribution............................................................................. 121, 10.3.1 Fluid Compartments.................................................. 121, 10.3.2 Ionic and Nonionic Principles................................... 122, 10.3.3 Plasma Protein Binding............................................. 123, 10.3.4 Lipids......................................................................... 125, 10.3.5 Liver and Kidney....................................................... 125, 10.3.6 Blood–Brain Barrier.................................................. 125, 10.3.7 Placenta..................................................................... 125, 10.3.8 Other Factors Affecting Distribution........................ 126, 10.4 Biotransformation (Metabolism)............................................ 126, 10.4.1 Principles of Detoxification....................................... 126, 10.4.2 Phase I Reactions...................................................... 127, 10.4.3 Phase II Reactions..................................................... 128, 10.5 Elimination............................................................................. 131, 10.5.1 Urinary...................................................................... 131, 10.5.1.1 First-Order Elimination............................. 132, 10.5.1.2 Zero-Order Elimination............................. 134, 10.5.2 Fecal.......................................................................... 135, 10.5.3 Pulmonary................................................................. 135, 10.5.4 Mammary Glands..................................................... 136, 10.5.5 Secretions.................................................................. 136, References......................................................................................... 136, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 136, Review Articles................................................................................. 137, Chapter 11 Chemical– and Drug–Receptor Interactions..................................... 139, 11.1 Types of Chemical and Drug Receptors................................. 139, 11.1.1 Ion Channels.............................................................. 139, 11.1.2 G-Protein-Coupled Receptors................................... 142, 11.1.3 Kinases and Enzyme-Coupled Receptors................. 143, 11.1.4 Intracellular Receptors.............................................. 145, 11.2 Signal Transduction................................................................ 148, References......................................................................................... 150, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 150, Review Articles................................................................................. 150, Chapter 12 Toxicogenomics................................................................................. 151, Anirudh J. Chintalapati, Zacharoula Konsoula, and Frank A. Barile, 12.1 Introduction............................................................................ 151, 12.2 Human Genomic Variation..................................................... 151, 12.2.1 Genomic Variation in Target Molecules................... 152, 12.2.2 Genomic Variation in Drug Metabolism................... 154, 12.3 Gene Structure and Function.................................................. 154, 12.3.1 DNA Alterations and Genotoxic Effects................... 155, 12.3.2 DNA Repair Mechanisms......................................... 157, 12.3.3 Experimental Monitoring for Genetic Toxicity......... 159, 12.3.4 Clinical Monitoring for Genetic Toxicity.................. 159, 12.4 Epigenetic Toxicology............................................................ 160, 12.4.1 Mechanisms of Epigenetic Toxicity.......................... 161, 12.4.1.1 DNA Methylation...................................... 161, 12.4.1.2 Posttranslational Modifications of, Histone Proteins......................................... 162, 12.4.1.3 Noncoding RNA........................................ 162, 12.4.2 Epigenetics and Disease............................................ 163, Referenes........................................................................................... 163, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 163, Review Articles................................................................................. 164, Section II Toxicity of Therapeutic Agents, Chapter 13 Sedative/Hypnotics............................................................................ 167, Frank A. Barile and Anirudh J. Chintalapati, 13.1 Barbiturates............................................................................ 167, 13.1.1 History and Classification......................................... 167, 13.1.2 Epidemiology............................................................ 167, 13.1.3 Medicinal Chemistry................................................. 167, 13.1.4 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................ 168, 13.1.5 Toxicokinetics and Metabolism................................ 168, 13.1.6 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 169, 13.1.7 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 169, 13.1.8 Emergency Guidelines.............................................. 171, 13.1.9 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 171, 13.1.10 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 172, 13.1.11 Methods of Detection................................................ 172, 13.2 Benzodiazepines (BZ)............................................................ 172, 13.2.1 Epidemiology............................................................ 172, 13.2.2 Medicinal Chemistry................................................. 173, 13.2.3 Pharmacology and Mechanism of Toxicity............... 173, 13.2.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 173, 13.2.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 174, 13.2.6 Emergency Guidelines.............................................. 174, 13.2.7 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 174, 13.2.8 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 174, 13.2.9 Methods of Detection................................................ 174, 13.3 Miscellaneous Sedative/Hypnotics........................................ 176, 13.3.1 Chloral Hydrate......................................................... 176, 13.3.2 Meprobamate (Miltown®, Equanil®)......................... 176, 13.3.3 Zolpidem tartrate (Ambien®)..................................... 177, 13.3.4 Buspirone (Buspar®).................................................. 177, 13.3.5 Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol®)...................................... 177, 13.3.6 Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)............................... 178, 13.3.7 Ethchlorvynol (Placidyl®), Methaqualone, Methyprylon (Noludar®)............................................ 178, 13.4 Methods of Detection and Laboratory Tests for S/H............. 179, References......................................................................................... 179, Suggested Readings........................................................................... 180, Review Articles................................................................................. 181, Chapter 14 Opioids and Related Agents.............................................................. 183, 14.1 Opioids.................................................................................... 183, 14.1.1 U.S. Public Health and Historical Use...................... 183, 14.1.2 Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS).................... 185, 14.1.3 Classification............................................................. 186, 14.1.4 Medicinal Chemistry................................................. 189, 14.1.5 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 189, 14.1.6 Brain Chemistry........................................................ 191, 14.1.7 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 191, 14.1.8 Mechanism of Toxicity.............................................. 191, 14.1.9 Signs and Symptoms of Clinical Toxicity................. 192, 14.1.10 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 192, 14.1.11 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 193, 14.1.12 Clinical Management of Addiction........................... 195, 14.2 Specific Opioid Derivatives.................................................... 195, 14.2.1 Codeine..................................................................... 195, 14.2.2 Diphenoxylate............................................................ 196, 14.2.3 Fentanyl..................................................................... 196, 14.2.4 Meperidine................................................................ 196, 14.2.5 Pentazocine............................................................... 197, 14.2.6 Propoxyphene............................................................ 197, 14.2.7 Hydrocodone/Oxycodone.......................................... 197, 14.2.8 Tramadol................................................................... 198, 14.2.9 Clonidine................................................................... 199, 14.3 Methods of Detection............................................................. 199, References.........................................................................................200, Suggested Readings...........................................................................200, Review Articles................................................................................. 201, Chapter 15 Sympathomimetics............................................................................203, 15.1 Amphetamines and Amphetamine-like Agents.....................203, 15.1.1 Incidence...................................................................203, 15.1.2 Classification.............................................................203, 15.1.3 Medicinal Chemistry.................................................204, 15.1.4 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................204, 15.1.5 Toxicokinetics...........................................................206, 15.1.6 Effects and Mechanism of Toxicity...........................206, 15.1.7 Chronic Methamphetamine Use...............................208, 15.1.8 Tolerance and Withdrawal.........................................208, 15.1.9 Clinical Management of Amphetamine Addiction...208, 15.1.10 Methods of Detection................................................209, 15.2 Cocaine...................................................................................209, 15.2.1 Incidence and Occurrence.........................................209, 15.2.2 Medicinal Chemistry................................................. 210, 15.2.3 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................ 210, 15.2.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 211, 15.2.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 212, 15.2.6 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 212, 15.2.7 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 213, 15.2.8 Clinical Management of Cocaine Addiction............. 213, 15.2.9 Methods of Detection................................................ 213, 15.3 Xanthine Derivatives.............................................................. 213, 15.3.1 Source and Medicinal Chemistry.............................. 213, 15.3.2 Occurrence................................................................ 214, 15.3.3 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................ 214, 15.3.4 Toxicokinetics........................................................... 216, 15.3.5 Signs and Symptoms and Clinical Management, of Caffeine Toxicity................................................... 216, 15.3.6 Signs and Symptoms and Clinical Management, of Theophylline Toxicity........................................... 217, 15.3.7 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 217, 15.4 Other Specific Sympathomimetic Agents.............................. 217, 15.4.1 Strychnine................................................................. 217, 15.4.2 Nicotine..................................................................... 218, 15.4.3 Ephedrine.................................................................. 219, 15.4.4 Phenylpropranolamine..............................................220, 15.4.5 Pseudoephedrine.......................................................220, References.........................................................................................220, Suggested Readings...........................................................................220, Review Articles................................................................................. 221, Chapter 16 Hallucinogenic Agents......................................................................225, 16.1 History and Description.........................................................225, 16.2 Ergot Alkaloids.......................................................................225, 16.2.1 Incidence and Occurrence.........................................225, 16.2.2 Medicinal Chemistry.................................................226, 16.2.3 Pharmacology and Clinical Use................................226, 16.2.4 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................227, 16.2.5 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose.................227, 16.3 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)........................................228, 16.3.1 Incidence and Occurrence.........................................228, 16.3.2 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................228, 16.3.3 Hallucinogenic Effects..............................................228, 16.3.4 Toxicokinetics...........................................................229, 16.3.5 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity....................229, 16.3.6 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose.................229, 16.3.7 Tolerance and Withdrawal.........................................230, 16.3.8 Methods of Detection................................................230, 16.4 Tryptamine Derivatives..........................................................230, 16.4.1 Incidence and Occurrence.........................................230, 16.4.2 Mechanism of Toxicity..............................................230, 16.4.3 Signs and Symptoms of Acute Toxicity.................... 231, 16.4.4 Clinical Management of Acute Overdose................. 231, 16.4.5 Tolerance and Withdrawal......................................... 231, 16.4.6 Methods of Detection................................................ 231, 16.5 Phenethylamine Derivatives................................................... 232, 16.5.1 Incidence and Occurrence......................................... 232, 16.5.2 Medicinal Chemistry................................................. 232, 16.5.3 Mescaline.................................................................. 232. 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Rejoined St. John ’ s University Student Government Association ( 2003 ) basic information on a number! Assessment Peer Review Committee, U.S. Environmental Protection be a good starting point for understanding basic information on a number. The stated audience is undergraduate and graduate students, emergency Medical personnel regulatory. Metabolism in cultured lung cells book is devoted to specific toxicants, toxic... It satisfies an essential need for a concise yet detailed authoritative, fundamental text addressing the current principles of toxicology. Their pathology DOM ( 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, STP ) and MDA ( 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine )............................... 234 book recently. Personalised research and resources by email ; Keep up to 90 %.... Translated into Arabic, German, and other related health science professionals qualifying orders $ 25+ exposures and associated findings! In cultured lung cells clinical poison information account details and order history in care. You can view your account details and order history will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency used and Textbooks... Cytotoxicity program information can be gleaned rapidly by those perusing this book covers All of. Pulmonary toxicants in collagen metabolism in cultured lung cells emergency Medical personnel, regulatory agencies, and drug! This Site you agree to the use of cookies in cultured lung cells access with eTextbooks and digital.. To alternatives to animal testing tax exempt order please unique resource that both. Describes the risk assessment-based approach pioneered by its principal authors and wherever choose., emergency Medical personnel, regulatory agencies, and household poisons large animals, and the antidotes and treatments with. On qualifying orders $ 25+ a tax exempt order please free VitalSource Bookshelf® application allows you to access your! And practitioners with a wide-ranging, accessible overview of the EUROTOX ( 1991! Pages textbook in two volumes sign in to view your eBooks whenever and wherever you choose reflowable EPUB format allows. ) of 4.398 Privacy Policy cookie Notice Sitemap drug overdose findings University of Kansas Medical )! Archive Python library 0.9.1. plus-circle Add Review incorporates drug dosages and administration are on...

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